Pest: Deer (Odocoileus hemionus, O. hemionus columbianus)

Pest Type: Vertebrate Pests

Major Identifying Features: Deer have split hooves that are pointed at the front and more rounded at the rear, and are about 2-3 inches ling

Life Cycle: Deer are mammals and develop in the womb and suckle milk from their mothers. Females are only ready to mate between 2 and 3 days in fall and gestation takes about 10 months. Females give birth to a single fawn (sometimes twins) away from the herd in spring. Deer stay with their herds and can live up to 20 years

Pest Rating: Moderate

Management Rating: Moderate

Host/Season/Outbreak Information: Foothill and coastal districts of California, deer feed mostly in the late evening and very early in the morning

Damage Information: Deer feed on woody plants, grasses, small flowering plants, fruit, nut, and ornamental trees, shrubs, vines, and vegetables. Deer also trample plants and damage young trees and shrubs by rubbing their antlers on trunks and limbs

Management Options: Deer cannot be trapped or poisoned, it is illegal. Fences, electric fences, individual plant protectors, and barriers are helpful, as well as frightening devices, and various repellants, physical control by exclusion is the best way to go to protect garden plants from deer



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